CHANGE Cohort 1: Long-term Implications Of Nutrition (LION) dataset – User Guide and Codebook

Permanent identifier

Data Creators

Kerac, M, Anujuo, K, Thompson, D, McKenzie, K, Badaloo, A, Boyne, M, Forrester, T, Gluckman, P, Hanson, M, Byrne, C, Cutfield, W, Kanjala, C and Opondo, C


LION is an existing prospective cohort of survivors of severe malnutrition in Jamaica which has been followed-up post-discharge after been identified as severely malnourished and treated with specialised feeds. The cohort consist of malnourished children treated in inpatient care (1965-93). Included in the study are children with severe wasting (weight-for-age < 60%) or oedematous malnutrition (weight-for-age 60-80%, plus oedema).

Description of data capture

Data from a cross-sectional retrospective survey on non-communicable disease (NCD) risk in adult survivors of severe malnutrition in childhood carried out between 2008-2012 at the Tropical Metabolism Research Unit (TMRU), the University of the West Indies (UWI), Jamaica. Adult data include blood pressure, anthropometric measures, body composition data, laboratory test results, and self-reported data relating to medical history, drug history and socioeconomic status. Childhood data include birth weight, and weight, length (height) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurements taken on admission, during hospitalization and up to 2 years post discharge from hospital.

Interviews with adult survivors were conducted face-to-face by trained research nurses when the participants reported to the TMRU. Additional data came from anthropometry, blood pressure and body composition measurements as well as lab test results. In addition, data relating to childhood hospitalization for severe malnutrition were abstracted from the medical records of the participants.

Data access

This dataset is not held in the LSHTM repository. Data management and access arrangements for this dataset are handled by researchers located at the University of the West Indies (UWI), in accordance with the study ethics approvals.

Please read the data codebook and make a note of variables that you wish to request prior to applying for access. Access requests submitted through the LSHTM repository will be sent to the LSHTM project team and passed onto the UWI researchers collaborators.

Data codebook

The following data table has been provided for the ‘LION_SM_NCD’ dataset. However, as noted above, the dataset has not been deposited to the LSHTM repository and staff are unable to verify its completeness or accuracy. Please refer all questions to the study team.

Variable name Description Value codes Stata data type
ID participant project ID   float
SEX sex of participants 1=male
Birthweight birthweight, kg   float
Ad_weight admission weight, kg   float
Ad_height admission height, cm   float
Ad_WAZ admission WAZ   float
Ad_HAZ admission HAZ   float
Ad_WHZ admission WHZ   float
Ad_MUAC admission MUAC, cm   float
Diagnosis diagnosis for SAM 1=kwashiorkor
MinW_weight weight at minimum weight, kg   float
MinW_height height at minimum weight, cm   float
MinW_WAZ minimum weight WAZ   float
MinW_HAZ minimum weight HAZ   float
MinW_WHZ minimum weight WHZ   float
MinW_MUAC minimum weight MUAC, cm   float
MaxW_weight weight at maximum weight, kg   float
MaxW_height height at maximum weight, cm   float
MaxW_WAZ maximum weight WAZ   float
MaxW_HAZ maximum weight HAZ   float
MaxW_WHZ maximum weight WHZ   float
MaxW_MUAC maximum weight MUAC, cm   float
Disch_weight weight at discharge from care, kg   float
Disch_height height at discharge from care, cm   float
Disch_WAZ discharge from care WAZ   float
Disch_HAZ discharge from care HAZ   float
Disch_WHZ discharge from care WHZ   float
Disch_MUAC discharge from care MUAC, cm   float
FUP1_weight weight at follow-up 1, kg (paediatic)   float
FUP1_height height at follow-up 1, cm (paediatic)   float
FUP1_WAZ WAZ at follow-up 1 (paediatic)   float
FUP1_HAZ HAZ at follow-up 1 (paediatic)   float
FUP1_WHZ WHZ at follow-up 1 (paediatic)   float
FUP1_MUAC MUAC at follow-up 1, cm (paediatic)   float
Fat_percent_DXA fat percent, DEXA (adult, follow-up 2)   float
Fat_grams_DXA fat mass in grams, DEXA (adult, follow-up 2)   long
Lean_grams_DXA lean mass in grams, DEXA (adult, follow-up 2)   long
BLMI_DXA Body lean mass index kg/m2, DEXA   float
BFMI_DXA Body fat mass index kg/m2, DEXA   float
AndroidFat_percent_DXA android fat percent, DEXA (adult)   float
AndroidFat_grams_DXA android fat mass in grams, DEXA   int
Fat_kg_DXA fat mass in kg, DEXA   float
Lean_kg_DXA lean mass in kg, DEXA   float
AndroidFat_kg_DXA android fat mass in kg, DEXA   float
SystolicBP systolic blood pressure, mmHg (adult)   float
DiastolicBP diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (adult)   float
FBG Fasting serum glucose, mmol/L (adult)   float
FSI Fasting serum insulin, uIU/mL   float
FUP2_weight weight at follow-up 2, kg (adult)   float
FUP2_height height at follow-up 2, cm (adult)   float
BMI Body mass index kg/m2 (adult)   float
FUP2_age_years age at follow-up 2 (adult)   float
Waist_hip_ratio waist hip ratio, w/h , cm (adult)   float
Resistance BIA resistance ohm (adult)   float
Reactance BIA reactance ohm (adult)   float
Impedance BIA impedance ohm (adult)   float
DOB1 date of birth   float
admission_date1 admission date   float
MinW_date1 date of minimum weight   float
MaxW_date1 date of maximum weight   float
Discharge_date1 date of discharge from care   float
FUP1_date1 date of follow-up 1 (1 year post discharge)   float
FUP2_date1 date of follow-up 2 (adult)   float
age_months_Ad age in months at admission   float
age_years_Ad age in years at admission   float
age_days_Ad age in days at admission   float
age_months_MinW age in months at minimum weight   float
age_years_MinW age in years at minimum weight   float
age_months_MaxW age in months at maximum weight   float
age_years_MaxW age in years at maximum weight   float
age_months_Disch age in months at discharge   float
age_years_Disch age in years at dischrge   float
age_months_FUP1 age in months at follow-up 1   float
age_years_FUP1 age in years at follow-up 1 (1yrPD)   float
age_years_FUP2 age in years at follow-up 2 (adult)   float
days_Disch_MinW days between minimum weight and discharge   float
days_MaxW_MinW days between minimum weight and maximum weight   float
months_FUP1_Disch months between discharge and follow-up 1   float
days_FUP1_Disch days between discharge and follow-up 1   float
years_FUP2_Disch years between discharge and follow-up 1   float
dWAZ_MaxWMinW delta WAZ from min. weight to max. weight   float
dWAZ_d_MaxWMinW PMGr1-delta WAZ/day from min. weight to max. weight   float
dWAZ_d_MaxWMinW_quintile PMGr1-5 quantiles of dWAZ_d_MaxWMinW   byte
grams_d_MaxWMinW PMGr3-delta grams/day from min. weight to max. weight   float
grams_d_MaxWMinW_quintile PMGr3-5 quantiles of grams_d_MaxWMinW   byte
dWAZ_MinWdisch delta WAZ from min. weight to discharge   float
dWAZ_d_MinWdisch delta WAZ/day from min. weight to max. weight   float
dWAZ_d_MinWdisch_quintile 5 quantiles of dWAZ_d_MinWdisch   byte
grams_d_MinWdisch grams/day from min. weight to discharge   float
grams_d_MinWdisch_quintile 5 quantiles of grams_d_MinWdisch   byte
grams_kg_d_MinWdisch grams/kg/day from min. weight to discharge   float
grams_kg_d_MinWdisch_quintile 5 quantiles of grams_kg_d_MinWdisch   byte
dWAZ_m_dischFUP1 PMGr4-delta WAZ/month from min.weight tofollow-up 1   float
dWAZ_m_dischFUP1_quintile PMGr4-5 quantiles of dWAZ_m_dischFUP1   byte
grams_d_dischFUP1 grams/day from discharge to follow-up 1   float
grams_d_dischFUP1_quintile 5 quantiles of grams_d_dischFUP1   byte
dHAZ_m_dischFUP1 PMGr6-delta HAZ/month from discharge to follow-up 1   float
dHAZ_m_dischFUP1_quintile PMGr6-5 quantiles of dHAZ_m_dischFUP1   byte
FFMI BIA fat free mass index, 1/z (adult)   float
FFMI_10K BIA fat free mass index (x10000)   float
pred_FFMI Fitted values of BMI regressed on 1/z   float
resid_FFMI Residuals of BMI regressed on 1/z   float
FMI_r1 resid_FFMI X 10000=proxy for fat mass index   float
FMI_10 BIA fat mass index (+10),   float
dWAZ_d_MaxWMinW_q PMGr1-mean 5 quantiles of dWAZ_d_MaxWMinW_quintile, PMGrA   float
grams_d_MaxWMinW_q PMGr3-mean 5 quantiles of grams_d_MaxWMinW_quintile, PMGrB   float
dWAZ_d_MinWdisch_q 5 quantiles of dWAZ_d_MinWdisch_quintile   float
dWAZ_m_dischFUP1_q PMGr4-5 quantiles of dWAZ_m_dischFUP1_quintile   float
dHAZ_m_dischFUP1_q PMGr6-5 quantiles of dHAZ_m_dischFUP1_quintile   float
mweight_MaxWMinW mean weight of maximum weight and minimum weight   float
grams_kg_d_MaxWMinW2 PMGr2_g/kg/day between maxW and minW   float
grams_kg_d_MaxWMinW2_quintile PMGr2_5 quantiles of grams_kg_d_MaxWMinW2   byte
grams_kg_d_MaxWMinW2_q PMGr2_mean5 quantiles of grams_kg_d_MaxWMinW2_quintile   float
mweight_dischFUP1 mean weight of discharge and FUP1 weights   float
grams_kg_d_dischFUP12 g/kg/day discharge, FUP1 mean weight   float
grams_kg_d_dischFUP12_quintile 5 quantiles of grams_kg_d_dischFUP12   byte
grams_kg_d_dischFUP12_q mean5 quantiles of grams_kg_d_dischFUP12_quintile   float
days_Ad_Disch days between admission and discharge   float
days_Ad_FUP1 days between admission and follow-up 1   float
years_Ad_FUP2 years between admission and follow-up 2   float
dgrams_dischFUP13 change in grams from discharge to follow-up 1   float
grams_kg_m_dischFUP13 PMGr5-change in grams/kg/month between discharge and follow-up 1   float
grams_kg_m_dischFUP13_quintile PMGr5-5 quantiles of grams_kg_m_dischFUP13   byte
grams_kg_m_dischFUP13_q PMGr5-5 quantiles of grams_kg_m_dischFUP13_quintile   float
tot_cholest total cholesterol   float
triglyceride triglycerides   float
hdl HDL- high density lipoprotein   float
ldl LDL- low density lipoprotein   float
alanine_trans alanine transaminase   int
adiponectin adiponectin   float
AG_ratio android/ gynoid ratio   float
HOMA HOMA insulin resistance   float


Post-malnutrition growth, Childhood, Non-communicable diseases (NCD), Anthropometry, Malnutrition, Severe acute malnutrition, Growth condition, Rehabilitation, Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity, Risk factors, Long-term outcome

Data Collection Period

1 January 1963 - 31 December 1993

Participating Institutions


Project name Funder Funder grant number
CHild Malnutrion & Adult NCD: Generatign Evidence on Mechanistic Links to Inform Policy/Practice (CHANGE Study) Medical Research Council MR/V000802/1