Data for "Where are patients missed in the tuberculosis diagnostic cascade? A prospective cohort study in Ghana"

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Dataset and associated questionnaire produced as part of a study to identify gaps in the tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic cascade prior to starting treatment conducted in urban and rural health facilities in south-east Ghana among presumptive TB patients routinely identified by a health worker as requiring a sputum TB test. The dataset contains 428 records with 30 variables. Each row refers to a study participant and contains variables of the type of health facility attended, age, educational level, place of residence, socioeconomic status, symptoms of TB (cough, fever, night sweat and weight loss), duration of symptoms, number of symptoms, HIV status, history of diabetes, body mass index, Karnofsky score, ever treated for TB, stigma and distance from residence to health facility. There are also variables on whether a sputum sample was submitted for the test, results received, test results, started TB treatment, duration from test request to sputum submission, reason for not submitting a sputum sample, number of health care providers visited included for each participant.

TB Ghana Dataset

This codebook lists variables collected in the TB Ghana study dataset. The dataset is restricted to comply with the study's ethical commitment to protect study participants. Anonymised data can be requested for use in research that possesses ethical approval. Correspondence may be directed to

Variable name Variable description Code Code description
health_facility_type Type of health facility 1 Rural Health Facility
    2 Urban Health Facility
age_group Age category 1 18-38
    2 39-59
    3 60 or over
gender What gender are you? 0 Male
    1 Female
educational_level What is your highest level of education? 1 No formal education
    2 Primary level/JHS 
    3 Senior/Tertiary
place_of_residence How will you describe your community of residence? 1 Urban
    2 Rural
Socioeconomic_status  Socioeconomic status 1 Low
    2 Middle
    3 High
cough Do you have a cough currently? 0 No
    1 Yes
fever Do you have a fever? 0 No
    1 Yes
night_sweat Do you sweat at night (drenching your cloths and bedding)? 0 No
    1 Yes
weight_loss Have you lost weight recently (not deliberately)? 0 No
    1 Yes
duration_of_symptoms_category Duration of symptoms category (days) 1 14 days or less
    2 More than 14 days
number_of_symptoms_category Number of symptoms category 0 01-02
    1 03-04
    2 More than 4
HIV_status What is your HIV status? 1 Positive
    2 Negative
    9 Don’t know
diabetes Have you ever been diagnosed with diabetes? 0 No
    1 Yes
bmi Body mass index    
karnofsky_score Karnofsky score 90 Able to carry out normal activity and have minor signs or symptoms of disease
    80 Carry out normal activity with effort and have some signs or symptoms of disease
    70 Able to care for self but unable to carry on normal activity or to do active work
    60 Occasionally require assistance, but able to care for most needs
    50  Require considerable assistance and frequent medical care
    40 Disabled as a result of illness and require special care and assistance or in bed more than 50% of the time
    30 Severely disabled as a result of illness requiring hospitalization or almost completely bedridden
severity_of_illness Severity of illness based on Karnofsky score 1 Least severe
    2 Less severe
    3 Severe
ever_treated_for_TB Have you ever been treated for TB? 0 No
    1 Yes
stigma Participant's perception of TB stigma 1 Low perceived stigma
    2 High perceived stigma
distance_to_laboratory_category Distance category 0 <10
    1 10-20
    2 More than 20
submitted_sputum Have you submitted sputum at the laboratory as requested by the health worker? 0 No
    1 Yes
received_results Have you received the test result? 0 No
    1 Yes
test_results What is the test result? 1 Positive
    2 Negative
    9 Don’t know
started_TB_treatment  Have you started TB treatment? 0 No
    1 Yes
duration_for_sputum_submission Time from sputum test request to sputum submission    
reason_not_submitted_sputum Why have you not done the test? 1 I am too busy to go to the laboratory
    2 I do not have money to travel to the hospital for the test
    3 I cannot produce sputum
    4 I feel well
    5 Other
number_of_providers_visited Number of care providers visited category 0 0
    1 1 or more